PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINOLOGY - SIXTH EDITION
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In his Preface to the Fourth Edition of this book Professor Sutherland said: "Much factual information regarding crime has been accumulated over several generations. In spite of this, criminology lacks full scientific standing. The defects of criminology consist principally of the failure to integrate this factual information into consistent and valid general propositions." As in the earlier editions, the Sixth attempts to correct some of these defects. Principles of Criminology has always been designed to place emphasis upon the organization and systematization of knowledge, and this edition adheres to that tradition.
Part One examines facts of crime and delinquency and relates them to Professor Sutherland's differential association and differential social organization theories. The factual data examined include variations of crime and delinquency rates with age, sex, race, poverty, educational status, urbanization, and other variables, as well as the incidence among criminals and delinquents of various biological, psychological and social traits, characteristics, and processes. The differential association theory and alternative theories of crime causation are evaluated in the light of their comparative capacity to "make sense" of the facts.
In Part Two factual materials pertaining to control of crime are related to sociological and psychological theories of punishment and treatment, as well as to the differential association and differential social organization theories. Imprisonment, probation, parole, corporal punishment, group therapy, and psychoanalysis, for example, are identified a societal reactions to crime, variations in these societal reactions are observed, and theories to account for the variations are presented. The contemporary conflict between punishment and treatment of criminals is documented, and the consequences of this conflict for practices and organization of police, courts, probation departments, parole departments, and prisons are examined. The implications of the differential association and differential social organization theories for correctional administration and for reform and rehabilitation of criminals are explored.